Mix 50ml (1.7 oz) of water, milk, sugar, and yeast in a bowl of a stand mixer and let sit for 10 minutes at room temperature.
Add the flour, 1/2 teaspoon of nutmeg powder, 1/2 teaspoon of cinnamon powder, 1/2 teaspoon of allspice powder, 1/2 teaspoon of cloves powder, 1/2 teaspoon of cardamom powder and rum to the yeast mixture and stir to combine. Knead using a stand mixer fitted with dough hook. Add the egg and continue to knead for about 3 - 5 minutes. The dough has to be glossy and smooth. Cut the butter into small cubes and slowly incorporate it into the dough. Knead once again. Cover with a kitchen towel and let proof on room temperature for about 35 minutes or until doubled in size.
roll out the dough
Roll the dough out to about 0.5 cm (1/4-inch) thickness and cut into 5 cm (2-inch) squares. Place each beignet on a tray lined with parchment paper. Leave a bit of space in between each beignet. Cover with a kitchen towel and let proof for about 15 minutes.
In a bowl stir together the sugar, cinnamon powder and seeds from 1/2 vanilla bean. Set aside.
Get a heavy-based saucepan. Fill it up to the halfway point with rapeseed oil. Heat the oil to 165 - 170°C/330 - 340°F. Carefully remove the beignets from the baking tray, take care not to deflate them, and put them into the oil. Cover with a lid. Fry for 3 minutes on each side until golden brown. Don't cover with a lid when you turn the beignets around. Remove from the oil and drain them on kitchen paper. Set aside to cool slightly.
Coat the beignets with cinnamon sugar while they are still a bit warm and serve immediately.